World Heritages in Turkey Part III

By | September 22, 2021

Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the cradle of the Ottoman Empire (World Heritage)

Bursa, today the fourth largest city in Turkey with around 3 million residents, was the first capital of the Ottoman Empire between 1326 and 1365. Even after that, the city south of the Marmara Sea remained the most important metropolis of Ottoman Anatolia. Trade and the processing of silk and cotton determined the economic activities, as the residence of the Ottomans, Bursa also had a rich cultural life.

UNESCO has designated eight individual sites in the city of Bursa and the nearby village of Cumalıkızık as world heritage sites – the business districts of the khans, so-called kulliyes (religious institutions) with mosques, religious schools, public baths and a poor kitchen as well as the grave of Orhan Ghazi, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.

All locations represent key aspects of early Ottoman rule. Outside of the historical center of Bursa lies the village Cumalıkızık with also well-preserved Ottoman architecture, whose integration into the world heritage is supposed to demonstrate the support of the capital through the hinterland. Fore more information about Turkey and Middle East, please visit 3rjewelry.

Bursa and Cumalıkızık: The Cradle of the Ottoman Empire: Facts Hide table

Official title: Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the cradle of the Ottoman Empire
Cultural monument: eight individual locations in the city of Bursa and the nearby village of Cumalıkızık
Continent: Asia
Country: Turkey
Location: Bursa, northwestern Anatolia
Appointment: 2014
Meaning: early Ottoman center with corresponding importance for Turkish history


Xanthos Ruins (World Heritage)

Xanthos was the center of Lycia, around 545 BC. Was conquered by the Persians. Outstanding monuments discovered in the ruined city are the acropolis and a theater. But the focus is on monumental, richly decorated Lycian tombs, so-called sarcophagus pillars, such as the lions’ grave. The harpy monument, the nereid monument and the Letoon, a temple area dedicated to Leto, are also of particular importance.

Xanthos Ruins: Facts

Official title: Ruins of Xanthos with the sanctuary of Latona
Cultural monument: The center of an alliance of cities with originally 9 m high pillar tombs such as the Harpy Monument, with the Nereid Monument, a once magnificent tomb of a Lycian prince – rebuilt in the British Museum in London – with the Acropolis pillar, a 4.75 m high pillar with a burial chamber on top the Lycian Acropolis and the Arch of Vespasian in honor of Emperor Vespasian (69–79) and the Lycian sanctuary of Leto, mother of Apollo
Continent: Asia
Country: Turkey
Location: At Kinik, southeast of Fethiye and southwest of Antalya
Appointment: 1988
Meaning: The Lycian capital and the Leto sanctuary are particularly important testimonies to the history of Lycia


Archaeological site of Ani (World Heritage)

Ani is a ruined city east of Kars in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The site is located on a remote plateau over a gorge on the border with Armenia. Mentioned for the first time as a fortress in 451 AD, Ani had been since Aschot III. (953–977) Capital of the Armenian-Georgian Bagratids with around 100,000 residents at that time. On the hilltop, the city with the citadel was built instead of an older castle, as well as many churches, some of which were heavily destroyed today, based on early buildings of Armenian art, including: Cathedral (989–1001, domed basilica), the church built under King Gagik of St. Gregory (1001–20), the Apostle Church (988–1001, with five domes).

The prosperity of Ani ended with the conquest by the Byzantines (1045) and Seljuks (1072), from whose time a mosque has been preserved. In 1235 the city was destroyed by the Mongols and in 1319 by an earthquake.

The settlement is characteristic of medieval urban development, which was shaped over the centuries by Christian and later Islamic cultures. Ani’s wealth was based on the control of trade along part of the Silk Road. The place has been uninhabited for about 300 years.

Ani Archaeological Site: Facts

Official title: Archaeological site of Ani
Cultural monument: Ruined city east of Kars in Eastern Anatolia with important monuments of Christian and Islamic cultures
Continent: Europe
Country: Turkey
Location: Ruined city in Eastern Anatolia
Appointment: 2016
Meaning: Testimony to medieval town planning with religious and military residential complexes as well as a hub for trade caravans

Archaeological site of Ani (World Heritage)