Tallinn is the capital of Estonia. The first mention of this city dates back to the 12th century AD.
Its historical part consists of Vyshgorod, which is located on the hill of Toompea (45 m above sea level), and the Lower City. Here, in winding narrow streets, old houses with red tiled roofs stand, there are the remains of city walls and swept roofs with weather vanes.
Historical center of Tallinn – City Hall Square (beginning of the 15th century). Since ancient times, it has been used as a market square and was a gathering place for citizens. Now colorful fairs are held here and open-air concerts are held. The square is decorated with the City Hall, it was first mentioned in chronicles in 1322. This is one of the best preserved medieval town halls in Europe. Also on the square you can see the famous Vana Toomas weather vane, a metal circle symbolizing the center of Tallinn and the oldest pharmacy in Europe.
According to ITYPEJOB, the oldest church in Tallinn is the Dome Cathedral. It was built in 1219, but then it was repeatedly reconstructed. The cathedral is part of the Vyshgorod Castle, which was built by the knights for defense. The modern Dome Cathedral is a mixture of various architectural styles. Inside, gravestones of the 13th-18th centuries, as well as numerous noble coats of arms and epitaphs dedicated to noble people and related to the 12th-20th centuries, have been preserved. Ivan Kruzenshtern, the first Russian circumnavigator, is buried in this cathedral.
in Tallinn there is the tallest building of medieval Europe – the Gothic church of Oleviste. It was erected in 1267 and named after the Norwegian king Olav II Haraldson, the patron saint of sailors. At the beginning of the 16th century, the height of Oleviste reached 159 m, then it was the tallest building in the world. A few kilometers from the coast, sailors could see her spire. Now you can climb to the upper levels of the church, from where a beautiful view of Tallinn opens up.
Among other attractions of the city, one can single out the complex of buildings of the Great Guild, the House of the Brotherhood of the Blackheads, the “staircase street” Lühike Yalg (“Short Leg”), the monument to the sailors of the battleship “Mermaid” on the shore of the Gulf of many interesting shops, the Niguliste Church, Pyhavaimu with a magnificent clock and a “hanging pulpit”, the Alexander Nevsky Church and the Church of the Kazan Mother of God, and the Kadriorg palace and park complex built by Peter I for his wife with the Museum of Peter the Great, where the residence of the President of Estonia is now located in Tallinn many museums. These are the Museum of Applied Arts, the Working Cellar, the Maritime Museum, the Museum of Nature, the Rocca al Mare Open Air Museum, the Tallinn City Museum, the State Historical Museum and the Estonian Art Museum near Toomkirk. The Tallinn City Museum presents collections of faience and porcelain, pewter, tiles, antique furniture, as well as a unique collection of 2,000 ancient costumes of Tallinn residents from different centuries.
The Museum of sweets of the Kalev factory, which produces chocolate, is very interesting. Here you will see candy boxes, wrappers from chocolate bars and ordinary candy wrappers, awards deserved by the factory at national and international exhibitions, and of course you will taste excellent chocolate.
City beach Pirit, Tallinn Zoo, amusement parks and the picturesque lake Ülemiste are perfect for a relaxing family holiday. Pirit Beach is located on the eastern outskirts of the city and has a length of over 4 km. It also houses the Yachting Center with a harbor and a beachfront entertainment complex with gyms, bars and restaurants. This beach is a favorite vacation spot for the townspeople, so it gets crowded during the summer months.
Tartu is the main cultural center of the country and the second largest city in Estonia. It is located in its southern part. Tartu has been mentioned since 1030 under the name Yuryev. Despite the fact that the city is several centuries younger than Tallinn, its Old Town looks much younger.
In the very center of Tartu rises Toomemägi hill – the former ancient settlement of the Estonians. Now there is a park and the building of the University. The University of Tartu – one of the oldest in Europe, was founded in 1632 by order of the Swedish king Gustav Adolf. Its building was built in the classical style. Most of the city buildings are made in this style, only the Church of Jaan and the Cathedral of Peter and Paul belong to the Gothic.
Among the ancient monuments of architecture in our time there are also the former church of St. John in the city center and the former cathedral on Tum Hill.
The status of the cultural capital of Estonia is also confirmed by numerous museums – the Museum of the History of the University of Tartu, the Estonian Sports Museum, the Museum of Geology, the Museum of Zoology, the Museum of Art, the Art Museum, the Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of the City’s History, the O. Luts House Museum and the Children’s Museum. In addition, five of Estonia ‘s six science centers are located in Tartu.