According to ITYPEJOB, Ankara is the capital of Turkey. It is the second largest city after Istanbul.
In ancient times, Ankara was known as Ankira. It was founded in the 7th century. BC. by order of the Phrygian king Midas. Five centuries later, it became the possession of the Roman Empire, and at the beginning of the first millennium AD – Byzantium. Despite the remoteness of Ankara from waterways, its position could not be called unfavorable: it was located at the intersection of overland trade routes and therefore, even in Roman times, it was a prosperous political and commercial center. In the summer, Ankara became the residence of the Roman emperors, who transported the entire government here, fleeing the summer heat.
In the XIV century. the city was captured by the Turks. After the battle between the troops of Timur and the Turkish Sultan Bayazet in 1402, the time of decline came not only for Ankara, but for the entire Ottoman Empire. A new impetus to the development of the city was given by the construction in 1893 of the Anatolian railway, which connected Ankara with Istanbul. The strengthening of economic ties contributed to the identification of Ankara as a major commercial and industrial center. In 1919-1928. During the national liberation struggle, based on strategic considerations, the city was declared the center of the country, and in 1923 Ankara was officially recognized as the capital of the republic.
Ankara consists of two parts – the Old and the New City.
The historical center of the city is the citadel of Khizar., surrounded by a double wall, along which one can trace the turbulent history of Ankara – each conqueror updated its walls, using the remains of destroyed buildings for this. The inner walls date back to the 6th century, and the fortress acquired its modern look in the 9th century. under the Byzantine emperor Michael II, when the outer perimeter of the walls was erected. Inside the walls are ancient buildings and Ak-Kale – “White Fortress”. Not far from the southern gate of the fortress is the Aladdin Mosque, one of the oldest Muslim buildings in Ankara. It has a square shape and a single minaret, which is unusual for Turkey.
Another symbol of the city is the Haji Bayram Mosque (XV century), built next to the ruins of the famous temple of Augustine and Roma 2nd century BC, on the walls of which sketches from Roman history and a list of the acts of Augustus are carved. Other Roman monuments include the ruins of thermae (2nd – 3rd centuries AD), the Emperor Julian’s Column (362 AD) and the Roman Theatre. Other mosques – Arslankhane, Kursunlu, Ahi Yervan – represent the period from the 12th to the 15th centuries. The new Kocatepe Cami Mosque was built in 1987 and is the largest mosque in the city. It is modeled after the Sultan’s mosques in Sinan, and its underground premises house tea houses and one of the largest supermarkets in the city. Ankara has great museums, some of which are located inside renovated Ottoman-era buildings. The most significant of these is the Museum of Anatolian Civilization, which is the third most important archaeological museum in Europe after the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London. This is an excellent place to view the rich collections of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hittite art. From the height of the hill on which the museum stands, an amazing view of the capital opens up. The best view of Ankara is from the observation deck of the 125-meter Atakule Tower, which houses a revolving restaurant and cafe.
Medieval streets and low-rise houses in the national style have been preserved in the Old Town. The busiest street in Ankara is Salman street or, as it is also called, “copper alley”. The name is not accidental. Many craft shops and shops offer tourists all kinds of copper products: dishes, jugs, mugs, candlesticks and other utensils. Favorite walking places are also Ulus Square in the Old City, Kyzylay Square in the New City with many small restaurants and Ataturk Boulevard.
The New City is located south of the Old. Here the central monument is the mausoleum complex of Ataturk., where the sarcophagus of the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal, is kept – the first ruler of the country, who gave it a civilized appearance and, in fact, made revolutionary changes in all spheres of public life in Turkey. Every hour a solemn changing of the guard takes place near the walls of the Mausoleum.