Turkey History Part IV

By | September 29, 2021

In foreign policy Ataturk tried to secure Turkey through treaties: among other things. Neutrality and non-aggression pact with the USSR (1925), friendship pact with Greece (1930) as well as the Balkans Pact (1934) and the Sadabad Pact (1937; between Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan). With British support, Turkey won the Straits Agreement von Montreux (1936) regained sovereignty over the straits. In 1939 France ceded the sanjak of Alexandrette (today Hatay) to Turkey as a mandate power over Syria. – During the Second World War, Turkey initially managed to maintain neutrality. Despite significant successes in building up the local economy (Turkey produced 76% of its cement, 63% of its cotton fabrics, 83% of the woolen fabrics and 94% of the sugar from its domestic needs in 1940), the post-world economic crisis meant another setback for young Turkey. After diplomatic relations with the German Reich were broken off (August 2, 1944), Turkey declared war on January 23, 1945, and war on Japan in order to gain access to the United Nations.

Heads of State of Turkey

Turkish sultans and presidents
Osman I. about 1300-1326
Orhan 1326-1360
Murad I. 1360-1389
Bajasid I. 1389-1402
interregnum 1403-1413
Mehmed I. 1413-1421
Murad II 1421-1451
Mehmed II 1444-1446
and 1451-1481
Bajasid II 1481-1512
Selim I. 1512-1520
Suleyman I. 1520-1566
Selim II 1566-1574
Murad III 1574-1595
Mehmed III. 1595-1603
Ahmed I. 1603-1617
Mustafa I. 1617-1618
and 1622-1623
Osman II 1618-1622
Murad IV 1623-1640
Ibrahim 1640-1648
Mehmed IV. 1648-1687
Suleyman II 1687-1691
Ahmed II 1691-1695
Mustafa II. 1695-1703
Ahmed III. 1703-1730
Mahmud I. 1730-1754
Osman III 1754-1757
Mustafa III. 1757-1773
Abd ül-Hamid I. 1774-1789
Selim III. 1789-1807
Mustafa IV. 1807-1808
Mahmud II 1808-1839
Abd ül-Medjid I. 1839-1861
Abd ül-Asis 1861-1876
Murad V. 1876
Abd ül-Hamid II. 1876-1909
Mehmed V. 1909-1918
Mehmed VI. 1918-1922
M. Kemal Ataturk 1923-1938
İ. İnönü 1938-1950
MC Bayar 1950-1960
C. Gürsel 1961-1966
C. Sunay 1966-1973
F. Korutürk 1973-1980
K. Evren 1980-1989
T. Özal 1989-1993
S. Demirel 1993-2000
A. Sezer 2000-2007
A. Gül 2007-2014
RT Erdoğan since 2014

After the Second World War (1945-61)

From 1946 Turkey turned to the multi-party system (founding of the Democratic Party; chairman M. C. Bayar). In turning away from the principle of autarky, the Turkish government pursued a policy of opening up the economy to the outside world (joining the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1947, GATT in 1948, and OEEC / OECD in 1956). After the Democratic Party’s election victory in 1950, Bayar became President and A. Menderes Prime Minister. This continued the liberalization of the economy. By promoting agricultural and religious concerns, Menderes won especially among the rural population of western Anatolia many followers. Inflation, temporary shortages of food and industrial goods, hindrances to the opposition and press censorship all contributed to dissatisfaction, especially among the urban population. This dissatisfaction erupted in student unrest in May 1960, which led to the military coup on May 27, 1960. A committee of officers led by General C. Gürsel took over the government. In one trial (October 1960 to September 1961), three death sentences (including Menderes) and long prison sentences (including Bayar) were handed down.

In the East-West conflict, Turkey turned to the US-led powers since 1945, especially since it felt threatened by claims by the Soviet Union (1945 termination of the 1925 Non-Aggression Treaty by the USSR). In 1952 she joined NATO and in 1955 the Baghdad Pact (CENTO). During the Korean War, Turkey made troops available to the UN. Cooperation with Greece has been severely affected by tensions over Cyprus and the dispute over sovereign rights in the Aegean Sea since 1955. In September there were pogrom-like anti-Greek riots in Istanbul-Beyo ǧ lu. They later formed an indictment in the trial of Menderes. Fore more information about Turkey and Middle East, please visit Paradisdachat.

Under a new constitution (1961-80)

After the adoption of a new constitution (July 19, 1961) containing a detailed catalog of fundamental rights, Gürsel became President (until 1966; 1966–73 Cevdet Sunay, * 1900, † 1982 ; 1973–80 Fahri Korutürk, * 1903, † 1987 ; 1980 İ. S. Çağlayangil). The parliament (Grand National Assembly) now consisted of two chambers (National Assembly and Senate). Another new feature was the establishment of a National Security Council, which, as a kind of shadow cabinet, enabled the military to have a say.

Coalition governments under İnönü and Suad Hayri Ürgüplü (* 1903, † 1981) were replaced in 1965 by governments of the Justice Party (successor to the Democratic Party since 1961) under S. Demirel. The increasing terrorism of social revolutionary organizations led to the overthrow of the government in 1971 by the army, which regarded itself as the guardian of the Ataturk reformist spirit (Kemalism). The subsequent cabinets (including Nihat Erim, * 1912, murdered in 1980) tried to reform. Turkey remained economically oriented towards Western Europe (Ankara Agreement 1963; Association Agreement with the EEC). From the 1973 elections the Republican People’s Party under B. Ecevit went emerged as the winner. In July / August 1974 Turkish troops occupied the north of the island of Cyprus, which led to a protracted conflict with Greece, but also to tensions with the other members of NATO. After a cabinet (1974) under the non-party Sadi Irmak (* 1904, † 1990) Demirel took over the government again in 1975, only briefly (1977 and 1978-79) interrupted by governments under Ecevit . During this time Turkey was shaken by terrorist acts with very different political motives, one third of the country was under martial law.

Military coup and development up to the end of the 20th century (1980-2000)

On September 12th, 1980 the army staged another coup, the parliament was dissolved, a number of politicians were arrested and the constitution was suspended. President and Chairman of the National Security Council became General K. Evren , Prime Minister Admiral Bülent Ulusu (* 1923). After the approval of a new constitution (1982), in which the Kemalist principles were expressed even more strongly than in 1961, new elections were held in 1983, from which the motherland party (ANAP) under T. Özal emerged as the strongest party (confirmed in 1987). Özal had already implemented drastic liberalization measures for the Turkish economy before September 12, 1980. In 1989 he was elected the second civilian president of the republic, the government was formed by Yildirim Akbulut (* 1935 ; successor June to October 1991 Mesut Yılmaz). As a result of domestic political pressure, over 300,000 members of the Turkish-Muslim minority in Bulgaria sought refuge in Turkey between May and August 1989; the provoked Turkish-Bulgarian conflict was only resolved after the fall of the communist system of government in Bulgaria. During the 2nd Gulf War, the Turkish government made bases available to NATO for a mobile reaction force against Iraq; the dissolution of the Soviet Union opened up increasing cultural and economic opportunities for Turkey in the Turkic-speaking republics of the CIS.

Turkey History 4