South Sudan. – Independent since 9 July 2011, the State of South Sudan was up to that date a part, the southernmost, of Sudan. The battles for the autonomy of the southern region, historically marginalized and oppressed by the Sudanese central government, culminated in the referendum for self-determination on January 9, 2011 which saw 98% of the citizens of the South speak out for secession. According to indexdotcom, after nearly twenty-two years of civil war between the northern and southern regions of Sudan, the referendum was the final stage of the peace process signed in 2005 in Nairobi by the Khartoum government and the southern rebels of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (Splm).. The proclamation of the independence of the 54th African state, greeted with joy by the United States and the European Union, was held in Juba, the country’s capital, where President Salva Kiir Mayardit, former commander of the southern rebels, has sworn allegiance to the new constitutional charter.
For the newborn South Sudan there were many problems to be addressed, first of all to cement the union of the country, which had hitherto been cohesive in the common goal of defeating the North, but in the aftermath of independence, crossed by divisions and conflicts between groups of power and different tribal affiliations. From the first public acts, the voice of civil society appeared to be downsized, instead the protagonist of a lively season of commitment and participation alongside political groups. But what aroused greater concern were relations with Sudan, greatly impoverished due to the secession of the South which meant for Khartoum the loss of about three quarters of oil production. To cushion the blow, the government of Khartoum wants to extend the agreements for the sharing of oil revenues from South Sudan signed in Nairobi in 2005, but South Sudan does not appear willing to give up, although it is forced not to exasperate its neighbor because it needs the Sudanese oil infrastructure to export its oil. Further tensions arise in the border areas that are still the subject of dispute and have already become the scene of clashes. Unresolved is the question linked to the city of Abyei and the district of the same name, which both states claim as part of the national territory, but which the troops of Khartoum occupied in May. The creeping conflict appears threatening in southern Kurdufan, a territory of Sudan in a strategic position: in fact, it became a border area after the secession of South Sudan, Kurdufan is also the region where the Nuba populations live, victims of a silent genocide for decades, and borders to the west, Darfur, where the civil war that broke out in 2003 has not yet been resolved. In July 2011, while the two governments launched mutual accusations and threats, the process of building the new state continued and Juba introduced the new national currency into the country, opening another dispute with Khartoum which still had around two billion in circulation in South Sudan. of Sudanese pounds. In 2013, the vice president of ethnic Nuer Riek Machar, ousted from office following a government reshuffle, led the rebellion of some factions of the army, sparking a new civil war that generated a million internal refugees and a crisis in the country. unprecedented food. Nor did the conflict cease after the signing in August 2014 of a peace agreement and the numerous truces agreed;