Madagascar Country Profile 2014-2015

by | June 2, 2020

Madagascar is an island republic consisting of Madagascar, the world’s fourth largest island, as well as some small islands in the Indian Ocean. See Abbreviationfinder.org for country profiles and abbreviations of Madagascar. Here you will find a unique biodiversity. Much of the fauna and flora is endemic (that is, it exists only in Madagascar), including the widely known gaseous lemur. Mountains and highlands are found in the interior of the country. In the lush lowlands of the east there is a long chain of lakes and canals. The coastal areas consist of tropical rainforest, which is threatened by deforestation.

From 1896 to 1960, the country was French colony. The era after independence has been politically unstable, with several undemocratic shifts of power.

The new president

Former Finance Minister Hery Rajaonarimampianina (56) took oath as Madagascar’s new Democratic elected president on January 25, 2014. In his speech, the newly elected president said he would leave the crisis behind and create reconciliation and development. He would wage an uncompromising fight against corruption and misuse of public funds. He wanted to crack down on the unlawful use of force, restore security in the country and establish a fair and balanced justice system that not only protects those who can pay, but can protect the rights of the weak. He also wanted to create economic growth and support farmers and artisans so that they could get paid for what they produce. Not least, both the health and school services were to be refurbished.

Roadmap

The background for the election was a Road Map signed by the warring parties in September 2011, with the UN, AU and SADC as sponsors. The road map contributed to the establishment of an Independent Electoral Commission (CENIT) to conduct the elections for a new president, new national assembly and municipal elections. An important point in the road map was that the former president, Marc Ravalomanana, who lived in exile in South Africa after the coup, should return to the island and that political prisoners should be released. But Heri has not been willing to give Marc a pass and return ticket. In October 2014, therefore, Marc returned the same way he disappeared, taking a private plane to a landing strip outside Antsirabe town where his dairy company had one of its factories. He was immediately arrested and placed under house arrest in Antsiranana on the northeast coast. But after several talks between the two presidents, he was released on Christmas Eve himself against a promise not to interfere with politics. Thus, the way was open for the Church of the Common Church (FFKM) to convene a reconciliation meeting between the four former presidents and the current democratically elected president. At a historic meeting, they agreed to leave previous conflicts behind. The church council, for its part, wanted to organize reconciliation meetings throughout the country in spring 2015. But afterwards, the coup president has resigned from the reconciliation process. At a historic meeting, they agreed to leave previous conflicts behind. The church council, for its part, wanted to organize reconciliation meetings throughout the country in spring 2015. But afterwards, the coup president has withdrawn from the reconciliation process. At a historic meeting, they agreed to leave previous conflicts behind. The church council, for its part, wanted to organize reconciliation meetings throughout the country in spring 2015. But afterwards, the coup president has resigned from the reconciliation process.

Where is the development?

One year, and two governments after the 2014 elections, people are starting to become impatient. Where are the jobs that were promised? Why don’t international investments come? Why do the power cutouts come so often that businesses can’t run their machines? The Minister of Energy was fired, but does it help to get the units up and running? Why can’t the authorities get hold of the timber barons that illegally harvest and export valuable rosewood from Madagascar National Parks to China? Where is the fight against corruption that the President promised in his inaugural speech? Poverty is spreading and with it also increasing crime, abuse and theft. Madagascar was supposed to be a rule of law, but why not get the arrested its defenders? Wasn’t reconciliation Hery Rajaonarimampianina’s king thought?

The municipal elections have been postponed several times

Instead, Hery builds her own political party: Hery Vaovaon’i Madagasikara (HVM), “Madagascar’s new force”. Each time he paves a cornerstone, or opens a new path, he creates local groups for his party. Such has been the tradition in Madagascar. Each president has had his own party: Tsiranana had PSD, Ratsiraka AREMA, Ravalomanana TIM, and now the trip has come to HVM. In Madagascar, parties are not formed around a program, but around a person.

This is probably also the reason why the municipal elections provided by the Road Map have been postponed several times. Originally it was to be implemented in May 2014, then it was postponed to October, and the last date was July 31, 2015. But no dry prediction when it can be implemented. In most municipalities there are mayors and municipal councils appointed by the Ministry of the Interior, not by the people.

The international community

President Hery Rajaonarimampianina has made several trips abroad: to the USA, the EU, France, Israel, Japan and China. Everywhere he is looking for investors who can get the wheels rolling after the political crisis in Madagascar. The United States has said that they are ready to resume the AGOA agreement that secured gaseous textile companies duty-free imports of goods into the US market. But then Madagascar must follow what was agreed on the road map and carry out all its choices. International aid actors also believe that they cannot provide state-by-state assistance as long as Madagascar does not have a credible development plan.

New development plan

President Marc Ravalomanana had the ” Madagascar Action Plan “, an ambitious five-year plan for the period 2007-2012. However, it went into the sink during the political crisis from 2009 to 2014. But now the authorities have adopted a new interim plan for development that will once again lure investors. Economic growth was solid in the last year of Marc Ravalomanana’s board, reaching 7-8 percent in 2008. During the crisis years 2009-2013, growth has been just under 0.9 percent. The forecasts indicate a possible growth of 5.5 percent in 2015, while others believe this is too optimistic.

Turn the Gassian ship?

The international community is ready to contribute. The following is stipulated: The EU will contribute $ 400-600 million; The International Monetary Fund with $ 47 million; UN with $ 520 million; The World Bank with $ 200 million and the African Development Bank up to $ 85 million. So far, expectations have not been met. But during the crisis, the donors provided support for social and humanitarian projects in the order of about $ 500 million.

There is hope, but better management is absolutely necessary. Former President Ravalomanana said he ruled the country the way he ran his own business. As a result, he fired those who were not skilled enough and did not do his job. This is how he also got many enemies. Does Rajaonarimampianina have too many friends who would like to enrich themselves, but who dare not take the hard roofs needed to turn the Gassi ship that so far floats in the Indian Ocean?