Population in Egypt
Despite the large land area of over 1.1 million km², the settlement areas of the Egyptian population are predominantly along the Nile and the coasts, which is understandable due to the hostile characteristics of the other desert parts of the country. The oases are also only sparsely populated due to the extensive infrastructural supply. Therefore, the mathematically determined, moderate population density of 96 residents per km² is quickly put into perspective when the total number of residents in Egypt is related to the country’s only approx. The region around the Nile is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with an estimated population growth of almost 2.5% per year and an average age of 23.5 years.
According to directoryaah, about 91% of the population are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians. However, they were culturally and linguistically Arabized over time through immigration and intermingling. The unmixed descendants are the sedentary and agricultural Fellachians and the Christian Copts, who mainly live in Upper Egypt and in the cities. Italians, Turks, Abkhazians and the British have also settled in the north of Egypt near the coast.
A Nubian minority still lives in southern Egypt and in the larger cities. A few descendants of the former Berber tribes still settle in the oases of the Libyan desert, which is also inhabited by nomadic Arab Bedouins. Bedscha-speaking nomads live in the Arab desert regions east of the Nile.
The official language in Egypt is Arabic. However, the majority of the local mother tongue spoken is a New Arabic dialect, Egyptian Arabic. In the Coptic Church, Coptic is still used as the liturgical language. In southern Egypt and in the Kharga oasis, many people speak Nubian. The Berber language Siwi is still spoken in the Siwa Oasis and there are also Domari speakers and Bedscha speakers in the southeast of the country.
As a foreign language, French is widely used in the Egyptian upper class, and most recently English. Due to the large community of Italian Egyptians in Alexandria, Italian was the lingua franca of the city well into the 20th century.
Politics and economics in Egypt
According to the constitution, Egypt is an Islamic state in which Sharia has been the main source of legislation since 1980.
According to the new constitution of January 16, 2014, approved by referendum, the presidential republic proclaimed in Egypt to date has become a semi-presidential unitary state that prohibits the establishment of religiously motivated political parties and grants the military a special political status. Compared to previous constitutions, the new constitution contains an expanded catalog of fundamental rights, guarantees equality between men and women and protects the Christian minority in the country.
The President is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, appoints the prime minister and the members of the cabinet, as well as the governors, the senior judges and officers. He also has the right to veto legislation, can issue decrees and dissolve parliament. It is elected through free elections with several admitted candidates. The unicameral parliament of Egypt, which exists under the new constitution, consists of the Council of the People with 596 members.
After South Africa, Egypt is one of the strongest industrial locations in Africa. In addition to the industrial processing of agricultural products such as cotton and sugar, the cement, fertilizer, iron, steel and aluminum production, the production of electrical and chemical-pharmaceutical products as well as petroleum processing and machine or. Vehicle construction has become important industries in Egypt. The Egyptian company Asfour Crystal International is the world market leader in the field of special lead crystal products.
According to ebizdir, Egypt’s most important mineral resource is oil, which is mainly extracted in the Gulf of Suez, in the Kattara Depression and on the Sinai Peninsula. In addition, rock phosphates, iron and manganese ores and salt are extracted. Deposits of asbestos, sulfur, non-ferrous metals and uranium ores are still waiting to be explored.
In addition to industrial production, agriculture continues to play an important role in Egypt as an employer. However, the main sources of income for Egypt are the proceeds from oil exports and the use of the Suez Canal as well as guest worker remittances and tourism. The gross domestic product per capita in 2016 was EUR 3,250, economic growth was 4.3 percent.
Transport network in Egypt
The Egyptian road network has a total length of almost 70,000 km and is primarily limited to the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta. Two thirds of the roads here are paved and the main roads are well developed. Longer stretches on the back roads of Egypt, on the other hand, can be uncomfortable due to numerous potholes and crossing moving dunes. The remaining parts of the country are only accessible via desert slopes. A road tunnel under the Suez Canal connects the Egyptian heartland with the Sinai Peninsula. The traffic in the cities of the country is described in many travel reports as confusing chaos. In fact, Egypt is one of the countries with the highest number of traffic accidents. Safety regulations and traffic behavior do not meet European standards.
The most important mode of transport in Egypt is still the railroad. The rail network of the Egyptian State Railways along the Nile and its delta has a route length of approx. 7700 km and is the oldest in all of Africa. The Alexandria – Cairo – Luxor – Aswan connection is operated daily with air-conditioned sleeper trains. A comfortable express train also connects Cairo with Marsa Matruh near the Libyan border. Fares on commuter trains and third class are subsidized by the state. In addition to passenger transport, the transport of goods by rail with four to five million tons per year is of considerable importance for the industrial development of Egypt.
The largest seaport is Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea, next to Port Said and Port Taufiq near Suez on the Red Sea. The 162 km long connection between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea via these two seaports through the Suez Canal plays an important and international role. Together with the Nile, around 3,350 km of inland waterways are navigable, on which 25% of goods traffic is handled.
International airports are located in Cairo, Alexandria, Marsa Alam and Luxor.